Indus River Valley Civilization
India is a peninsula in the continent of Asia. The peninsula is also often called the “child of Asia”, because it is as if aloof apart from other Asian regions. India’s area in whole is 4,070,000 sq mi or about 32 times the area of Java. This region is now becoming a region which is now India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
a. Natural conditions
In the north lies the Himalayan Mountain Range where the highest peak in the world, Mount Everest (8,865 m) is in. In the southwest lies the Hindu Kush Mountain Range. These two mountain ranges are a real separator between India and northern Asia. The only way to enter India from the north is through the sidelines between mountains called a pass.
b. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa Civilizations
Before the Aryan people entered Northern India, it turned out in the Indus River Valley or Shindu grew a high-valued ancient civilization. The Indus River Valley civilization is found in two places, namely Mohenjo-Daro, in the downstream of the Indus River Valley and in Harappa, in the upstream of the Indus River Valley (Punjab region). Now the region is part of Pakistan.
Archaeological excavation results in 1924 led by John Marshall gave clues that around 3000 BC, in Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa has grown an ordered life with a magnificent urban planning. Below are examples of discoveries that were results of the Indus River Valley Civilization…
- Urban planning
Based on the founded artifacts, we can conclude that Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were two cities built based on growing urban planning. Both cities were established with paying attention in terms of health, beauty, and defense.
- Ancient buildings
Buildings, shopping complexes and big houses were built at the side of the road with good quality mud bricks. There was even a three-story house building. These buildings were equipped with pipes from clay used to flow water and dirt from the top level and empty in the gutter underground.
Supporters of the Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa civilizations had already thought of sanitation problems. Houses were built with paying attention in terms of health. Rooms were equipped with wide windows dealing directly with free air, that air circulation went well.
The Indus River Valley civilization left many ancient stuff in the form of agricultural tools, household utensils, terracotta, jewelry, etc.
- Social and economic life
Supporters of the Indus River Valley civilization are the Dravidian people, who were black-skinned native Indian people. The main livelihood of the Indus Valley people is agriculture. Their agricultural products were rice, wheat, sugar, barley, cotton and tea. In connection with the agricultural activities that they attempted, they worship the Goddess of Fertility, Parvati.
The Indus River Valley people embrace polytheism (worshiping many gods). Outside from worshiping Parvati who is depicted as a woman with a big body, they also worshiped a god depicted with big horns. There were also signs of worshiping animals (totemism), like crocodiles, rhinos and elephants. They also worshiped trees like banyan trees (papal) and stuff as talismans (dynamism).